Complementary Local Urban Environmental Systems (CLUES) project

Complementary Local Urban Environmental Systems (CLUES) project

In rapidly urbanizing cities, the quality of the living environment is under great strain. New solutions need to be found for rapid extension of environmental services. There is potential for a new dynamic sector of the economy to grow, and demand for environmental services is unquestionable.



This action research project is assessing the potential for complementary local urban environmental services (CLUES), meaning the bundling of front-line service delivery arrangements for faecal sludge management (FSM) and solid waste management (SWM).

The scope of the research is to assess the conceptual framework for complementary local urban environmental services (CLUES). Through bundling essential services under single umbrella contracts, micro-entrepreneurs should be better able to strengthen their revenue sources, balance risks, maximize logistical synergies, attract credit, and make cost savings.



Looking at the existing models of SWM and FSM, we will assess whether the so-called CLUES approach can gain traction at local level in 10 developing cities in Africa and Asia.

The project will provide an in-depth assessment of the situation, stakeholders and the institutional frame of existing systems. At its core, the work will be based on the Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) and Diamond Model approach. In this City Study the Feacal Sludge management will be included and as we will be looking at the options for linking FSM & SWM the emphasis within solid waste will be on the organic waste stream.



After the CLUES research phase, as a follow up lessons learnt from the City Reports will be tested and converted into city plans in which the CLUES concept is being applied and can be widely implemented in developing cities all over the world.


Partners involved


• WASTE 3R India

• Practical Action Bangladesh



Funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation